"This report contributes to international discussions on strategies and policies needed to ensure economic, sustainable, and equitable development of bioenergy. It points to key social, economic, and ecological sustainability issues raised by the rapid development of bioenergy in both small- and large-scale applications. The paper is intended to raise key questions and explain the principal trade-offs involved in bioenergy development. It provides a framework for decision-makers on key sustainability issues and addresses action at national and international level."--from publisher. Bioenergy in the global energy context -- Key sustainability issues -- Ability of modern bioenergy to provide energy services for the poor -- Implications for agro-industrial development and job creation -- Health and gender implications of modern bioenergy -- Implications for the structure of agriculture -- Implications for food security -- Implications for government budget -- Implications for trade, foreign exchange balances, and energy security -- Impacts on biodiversity and natural resource management -- Implications for climate change -- Looking forward.