Policies seeking to directly help the poor have an important role to play. But without sustained growth in per capita output and significant job creation, they will not succeed. Policies promoting growth have been suggested, most notably by avoiding pro-cyclical responses to macroeconomic shocks (especially from abroad), steering macroeconomic prices, such as exchange and interest rates, to support developmental objectives, pursuing industrial and trade policies involving increasing returns, promoting financial development, and making productive use of foreign aid. Ensuring national economies have sufficient policy space to achieve sustained growth and structural change should be the over-riding policy concern. Macroeconomics and External Shocks -- Financial Structures -- Economic Structure and Employment -- Foreign Aid -- Policy Alternatives -- Macroeconomic Policies -- Structural Transformation Policies -- International Environment -- Pro-Poor Policy Orientation.