This Review analyses the main factors affecting the level of economic activity in the Middle East during 1950 and 1951: agriculture, industry and petroleum. The introduction discusses the problems of production and prospects for economic development. The Review also assembles information on the aid given to Palestine refugees by the United Nations and on the contribution made to the economic development of the region during recent years by international organizations and foreign countries, in the form of both capital and technical assistance. 1. Foreign trade -- 2. Petroleum -- 3. Trends in production and prices in selected countries.