The emissions gap in 2020 is the difference between emission levels in 2020 consistent with meeting climate targets, and levels expected in that year if country pledges and commitments are met. As it becomes less and less likely that the emissions gap will be closed by 2020, the world will have to rely on more difficult, costlier and riskier means after 2020 of keeping the global average temperature increase below 2 C. If the emissions gap is not closed, or significantly narrowed, by 2020, the door to many options limiting the temperature increase to 1.5 C at the end of this century will be closed. Chapter 1. Introduction -- Chapter 2. Emissions trends as a result of pledges and their implementation -- Chapter 3. The emissions gap and its implications -- Chapter 4. Bridging the gap I: Policies for reducing emissions from agriculture -- Chapter 5. Bridging the gap II: International cooperative initiatives -- Chapter 6. Bridging the gap III: Overview of options.