While COVID-19 threatens to reverse the decade-long progress on the fight against poverty, the pandemic sharply focuses the world’s attention on health concerns, including human health, environmental health and planetary health. In this respect, Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) have been recognised as potentially transformative tools for governments and businesses to realise their sustainability commitments. The 4th Flagship responds directly to The 4th Flagship responds directly to UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres call for climate-related and human rights actions to shape the recovery from COVID-19 and help developing countries achieve the SDGs. This report thus, analyses how VSS are (and can be) integrated into Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) and trade policy respectively. The concept of Sustainable Public Procurement (SPP) is used to refer to social- and environmental-friendly public procurement policies. The research explores some of the arguments for and against such integration. Table of Contents -- Executive Summary -- Introduction -- Voluntary Sustainability Standards and Public Policy -- Why Integrate VSS into Public Policies -- Chapter 1 -- VSS Adoption Dynamics and Trend development -- Introduction -- Evolution of Certified Commodities and Cropland Area -- Uptake of VSS at Country Level -- Other Factors Influencing VSS Adoption -- Chapter 2 -- Drivers for Adoption: Sustainable Public Procurement -- Introduction -- Public Procurement -- Sustainable Public Procurement -- Voluntary Sustainability Standards in SPP -- Considerations for Integrating VSS in SPP -- Chapter 3 -- Drivers for VSS Adoption: Trade Policy -- Introduction -- VSS and Free Trade Agreements -- VSS and GSP Schemes -- VSS and Market Access Regulation -- Export Promotion -- Better Cotton Initiative in Mozambique -- Forest Stewardship Council in Gabon -- Marine Stewardship Council in Suriname -- Chapter 4 -- Integrating VSS into Public Policy -- Capacity of VSS-- Increase in the Number of VSS and Recognition of VSS -- Convergence and Divergence of Recognition Systems -- Over-certififcation -- Distributional effects -- Conclusions -- References --- Annex : Methodological note on VSS adoption scores.