This report was produced because we observed in the first phase of the COVID-19 response many cases where punitive and discriminatory approaches hurt the most vulnerable and in so doing were impeding progress in tackling COVID-19 and HIV. It is vital to study them to ensure that they are avoided in future. The examples shared in the report happen to be from sixteen countries with significant HIV prevalence and where fuller case studies could be brought together. The issues those examples highlight go well beyond those countries and elements described in them have been reported across the world. The illustrative examples are included not to narrow the focus of discussion down to just the countries they are from, but to illustrate approaches reflective of many countries. The examples are a snapshot from a period Foreword 3 between February and May 2020. In several cases governments have made very welcome steps to address the specific cases, and both the report and the progress of our work together in countries have benefitted greatly from our constructive conversations about the examples included. The purpose of sharing them in this report is not to apportion blame, but to help the world learn lessons from examples, including from examples where judicial or government action helped to rectify earlier damaging impact on rights, to support advances in the effectiveness of the response in every country in the world. We are learning more about COVID-19 and about the response day by day. Learning and adapting is central to success. We invite and look forward to ongoing conversations with governments and other stakeholders to exchange experiences, strengthen plans, and continue to learn about how we can best support countries in our joint work. What this report highlights most of all is that rather than a public health response and a rights-based response being opposing poles, public health responses are only fully effective if they are absolutely grounded in human rights and have the unwavering trust and confidence of communities. When disease transmission is between humans, human rights must be the fundamental driver of the response. Discrimination, stigmatization, and criminalization of marginalized communities are bad for the health of everyone. No one is safe until all of us are safe. When, in contrast, we ensure that no one is left behind or pushed behind, it helps us all move forward. Contents -- Executive summary -- Foreword -- Introduction -- Methodology -- Setting the scene: limiting movement of people in response to COVID19 -- COVID19 public health orders and human rights -- Avoid disproportionate, discriminatory or excessive use of criminal law -- Stop discriminatory enforcement against key populations -- Explicitly prohibit state-based violence, and hold law enforcement and security forces accountable for disproportionate responses or actions when enforcing COVID-19 response measures -- Include reasonable exceptions to ensure legal restrictions on movement do not prevent access to food, health care, shelter or other basic needs -- Take proactive measures to ensure people, particularly from vulnerable groups, can access HIV treatment and prevention services and meet other basic needs -- Rapidly reduce overcrowding in detention settings and take all steps necessary to minimize COVID-19 risk, and ensure access to health and sanitation, for people deprived of liberty -- Implement measures to prevent and address gender-based violence against women, children and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex people during lockdowns -- Designate and support essential workers, including community health workers and community-led service providers, journalists and lawyers -- Ensure limitations on movement are specific, time-bound and evidencebased, and that governments adjust measures in response to new evidence and as problems arise -- Create space for independent civil society and judicial accountability, ensuring continuity despite limitations on movement -- Conclusion -- References.