About 2.7 billion people do not have access to modern energy. Without it, they have little chance of achieving a decent living standard. Much more economic progress is needed to lift the living standards of the world’s poor and to provide for the growing world population. This will substantially increase the demand for energy. This requires a fundamental transformation of the present global energy system. The system, as we know it, is responsible for most of the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions responsible for climate change. Without a major shift to clean energy and greater energy efficiency, satisfying the additional energy demand will push climate change to catastrophically dangerous levels.