The Guidance on Modernizing Statistical Legislation aims to support and inspire countries wishing to benchmark or update the legal framework of their national statistical systems. Based on a review of the current legal and institutional frameworks and the operational environment of statistical production, the Guidance identifies common elements of statistical legislation and their intended outcomes as well as emerging issues relevant for statistical legislation. The Guidance builds on the Generic Law on Official Statistics developed by UNECE for the countries of Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia and is aligned to the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics, the European Statistics Code of Practice and the OECD Recommendation on Good Statistical Practice. Executive summary -- 1. introduction -- 2. Review of current legal and institutional frameworks of official statistics -- 3. Review of the operational environment of statistical production -- 4. Common elements of statistical legislation -- 5. Intended outcomes of the common elements of statistical legislation -- 6. Guidance on developing, modernising and reinforcing legal frameworks of statistical legislation -- 7. Governance of national statistical systems and its legal aspects -- 8. Emerging issues related to statistical legislation -- 9. Conclusions and further work proposals -- Annex 1. Terms of reference for the task force on common elements of statistical legislation -- Annex 2. Examples of effective regulation and implementation of legal elements.